The Tenth Anniversary of Democracy in South Africa

The 10th Anniversary of Democracy in South Africa

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Africa, Minister NC Dlamini Zuma
International Conference Centre, Paris, France 18 June 2004

Your Excellency, Bridgette Mabandla, Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development of South Africa; Your Excellency, Xavier Darcos, Minister Delegate for Cooperation, Development and Francophonie of the French Republic; Senator Robert Badinter, Chairperson of the Session; Yves Laurin, Chairperson of the French/South Africa Your Excellencies; Distinguished Guests;

"My fellow compatriots and dear friends of South Africa;

Ladies and Gentlemen

My delegation and I wish to thank you for the warm welcome that we have received. I also wish to thank the French Foreign Ministry and the South Africa/French Committee for hosting this conference in celebration of South Africa's 10 years of freedom, democracy, peace and justice.

We are here today, to celebrate amongst friends and comrades, a decade of freedom and democracy. We are here to honour the spirit of human solidarity that nourished hope in the collective dream that victory in humanity's united struggle against apartheid, that crime against humanity was certain

Throughout the world people have come together, as we are doing today, to celebrate this 10th Anniversary of Freedom. They have done so because the struggle against apartheid was a united struggle of the peoples of the world against racism and racial domination. We do so because the victory against apartheid was as much your victory as it was ours. "

History recalls that today, 64 years ago, on the 18 June, when the global struggle against Nazism was at its lowest ebb and all seemed to be lost, that General Charles De Gaulle, a much beloved son of France, stood before a microphone in London, and rallied the French people throughout the world behind the flame of French resistance against the occupying forces of Nazism. On this day, amongst other things, he posed the question to the people of the world and France in the face of overwhelming odds:

"Must we abandon hope? " He went on to say:

"Quoi qu'il arrive, la flamme de la résistance française ne doit pas s'éteindre et ne s'éteindra pas. "

Whatever happens, the flame of French resistance must not and shall not die. History also recalls 14 years later a similar call was made to the people of the world and South Africa, in the face of overwhelming odds, to rally behind the South African flame of resistance as declared in the Freedom Charter:

"Let all people who love their people and their country now say, as we say here: these freedoms we will fight for, side by side, throughout our lives, until we have won our liberty. "

On such a day as today, we must therefore rejoice. We must rejoice in victory and celebrate that remarkable spirit of humanity, courage and hope that rallied behind these clarion calls of resistance, overcoming overwhelming odds, to ensure the defeat of the 20th Century's twin evils, Nazism and apartheid. History says that today, 60 years after D-Day and 10 years of South African freedom, is a good day.

As we celebrate, we must also pay tribute to all the French men, women and children who were part of the formidable and powerful solidarity movement against apartheid and for the liberation of South Africa.

On this day we also have to honour those who lived and died for our freedom, but themselves never saw the dawn of that freedom. Amongst them, is Dulcie September. A woman, a comrade, a patriot and a heroin of our people. Sixteen years ago, her life tragically ended in the hands of a nameless murderer who was never brought to justice here in Paris at the ANC office.

Yesterday we visited Arcueil where she lived and together with the Mayor, some founder members of the Recontre Nationale Contre L'Apartehid and the inhabitants of Arcueil, paid tribute to Dulcie September. She died in her post with honour and dignity, like any fighter who falls on the battlefield. We honour her memory, we are inspired by her courage.

It is sixteen years since the bullets of a cowardly assassin ended her life, but the ideals and values for which she lived and died are now entrenched in our country. We shall forever be indebted to the community of Arcueil for naming their college after her, thus keeping her memory alive.

Today we are here together to celebrate an extraordinary victory of a collective human effort that saw the birth of a new democratic, peaceful, non-racial, non-sexist South Africa that saw the adoption of one of the most progressive Constitutions of the world.

  • The dignity of all South Africans has been restored and they now enjoy human rights.
  • South Africa is now a modern, 21st century democracy.
  • We have just had our 3rd democratic elections, with a very vocal opposition, a vibrant, independent media and a resounding victory for the ANC.
  • Peace: South Africa, once an international pariah, now is an active member of the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the Commonwealth and other international organisations. It has hosted major international conferences.
  • South Africa, once a reign of terror in the region, now the National Defence Force is the 10th largest contributor of peacekeepers, contributes to disaster relief and humanitarian assistance.
  • It is the first country to voluntarily abandon nuclear and biological weapons.
  • Water: Between 1994 and 2004, 10 million more people will have access to clean water.
  • Electricity: More than 70% of people have access to electricity.
  • Education: Now 85% of children have access to integrated secondary school education.
  • Housing: 1,6 million new homes have been built through government subsidies.
  • Economy: South Africa has diversified its economy, with manufacturing and services being the largest and mining and agriculture no longer dominating the economy. Trade has been diversified with Asia and Africa growing rapidly. The economy is no longer shrinking, but is growing consistently. Black economic empowerment for the deracialisation of the economy is progressing slowly.
  • 5 Million poor and old people receive state grants.
  • Gender: In 1994 2,8% of South African parliamentarians were women. Now a third of all parliamentarians are women. Women form 40% of the Cabinet. Over 40% of the Provincial Premiers are women. We are challenging the business sector to follow suite.
  • Free Primary Health Care: Free health care for pregnant women and children up to 6 years.
  • Sport: South Africa was barred from international sport. Now we have even hosted the World Rugby and Cricket Cups, the Africa Cup of Nations, the All Africa Games, amongst others. South Africa will host the Soccer World Cup in 2010, awarded to Africa for the first time in the history of FIFA.

Nation-building and reconciliation started during President Mandela's time. South Africa, almost as diverse as the world itself in terms of race, colour, religion, language, etc. sees this diversity as a strength and adds beauty to the common human tapestry. South Africa is a country of breathtaking, diverse landscapes and a mega diversity of fauna and flora. A land of diverse cultural heritage. In these turbulent times, South Africa is a land of hope and optimism. As we celebrate, we are also mindful of the many difficult challenges that lie ahead. Poverty, underdevelopment, employment, HIV and AIDS, TB and other diseases. These will form our primary focus in the second decade.

Development of a skilled labour force for our modern economy. Government has to intervene to assist the South Africans who are not part of the 1st world, modern economy. We cannot leave their fate to the markets. We have planned an expanded public works programme, which will be labor-intensive; it will also impart skills to those who have none.

Chairperson, there is now consensus that the biggest challenge of the 21st century is Africa's underdevelopment.

Over the past ten years, our involvement in world affairs has been premised on the view that the strength of our nation depends on the strength of the African Continent. Hence our efforts in consolidating an African Agenda, in co-operating with the African Diaspora and in working together with other partners to create a better, more humane and people centred Continent and contribute to a better world. Conflict resolution, peace and stability, democracy, good governance, respects for human rights, sustainable development, economic prosperity have to be part of Africa's renewal.

The African Union is best placed to undertake a programme of such magnitude. We are all working hard to build and strengthen the institutions of the AU. In March of this year the Pan African Parliament was inaugurated in Ethiopia. The establishment of this key political organ of the African Union is a crucial step towards Africa determining its destiny. We, like you, have established this continental parliament because we recognise that sustained development, an improvement in the quality of ours people's economic well-being, is inextricably linked to political stability, democratic governance, conflict prevention and resolution.

Last month, the leaders of our Continent gathered again in Ethiopia to officially launch the African Peace and Security Council. The launch of the PSC was a historical moment giving us a framework for conflict prevention, management and resolution and for peacekeeping and peace building. This new organ signifies the unwavering commitment of all African peoples to rid the Continent of any form of instability and to ensure that peace reigns on all corners of our continent because the renewal of the Continent, its prosperity and sustainable development is dependent on it.

The Programme of Action of the AU is the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), which is an economic developmental plan for Africa with priorities in:

  • Agriculture and food security because Africa has to feed itself;
  • Health, especially in dealing with diseases such as malaria, TB, HIV/Aids, polio, etc.
  • Infrastructure - telecommunications, ICT, transport (rail, air, sea) and energy;
  • Market access for our products - movement away from exporting raw materials to manufacturing and value addition;
  • Macro-economic stability
  • Democracy, good governance and respect for human rights.
  • Human resource development

The partnerships are between and amongst African countries first and foremost. It is a partnership between Africa and the countries of the South, and then a partnership between Africa and the North. In this context, we have just concluded yet another round of discussions with leaders of the G8 in the USA. South Africa will continue to play its role to contribute towards Africa's prosperity and stability.

We are grateful to French/South Africa Committee for its work and sustained support.

There are common problems that the world is facing. Global poverty, marginalisation of billions of people, environmental issues, global governance, global trade rules, rise of racism, terrorism.

There is a growing movement towards unilateralism and the undermining of the United Nations (UN). The Security Council is not able to act at all times as a credible and reliable agent of our collective security when it is not representative, not democratic and is sometimes used by certain powerful nations for their own agendas. The financial institutions are not always responsive to the poor and underdeveloped. Unilateralism causes instability rather than stability. What can we do collectively to address these problems?

On 2 May, our President had this to say in Parliament:

"Less than a month ago, the peoples of the world joined us in Pretoria as we celebrated our First Decade of Freedom. The level and the breadth of the international participation in these celebrations demonstrated that the peoples of the world continue to value our achievements in creating the kind of society defined by our Constitution.

This was further confirmed by the many other celebrations that took place in various countries throughout the world, including the United Nations and other institutions.

These two celebrations, of our 10th anniversary and the success of our bid, confirm the strength of the sentiment shared by millions across the globe, for a world of peace, democracy, non-racialism, non-sexism and freedom from poverty. They speak of a shared dream for international solidarity and friendship among the peoples, and the victory of the African Renaissance.

These circumstances suggest that perhaps the time has come for the emergence of a united movement of the peoples of the world that would come together to work for the creation of a new world order. This would respond to the urgent need to address the concerns and interests of the billions on our universe who are poor and marginalised, as are the same masses in our country who must be the principal focus of our efforts to build a caring and people-centred society. "

It is possible to build a formidable, united movement to share ideas and collectively look for solutions to the problems of poverty and marginalisation. We have a collective responsibility to bequeath to future generations a safe planet, a safe, peaceful, secure and equitable world. A world without racism and sexism. If we were able to collectively defeat apartheid, we can also fight and eradicate poverty. We can protect our planet and we a build a world order where there are predictable international rules. Let us be a positive force for changes, a people's solidarity movement against poverty.

I am sure that in rising to these challenges, as we must for the future of this world, we shall answer as General de Gaulle did, when he asked the question, 64 years ago, when all seemed lost and when the future of the world then seemed so bleak:

"L'espérance doit-elle disparaître? "

Shall we lose hope? Must we abandon all hope?

To this question of our time, we must answer as he did:

"Non! "

In the words of a powerful African scholar, there are no powerless people. We have the power in our collective action. Let us reflect on the following words of Ben Okri, in his work, “Way of Being Free” where he writes:

"They tell me that nature is the survival of the fittest. And yet look at how many wondrous gold and yellow fishes prosper among silent stones of the ocean beds, while sharks eternally prowl the waters in their impossible dreams of oceanic domination and while whales become extinct, how many butterflies and iguanas thrive, while elephants turn into endangered species, and while even lions growl in their dwindling solitude "

"There is no such thing as a powerless people. There are only those who have not used their power and will. It would seem a miraculous feat, but it is possible for the undervalued ones to help create a beautiful new era in human history. New vision should come from those who suffer most and who love life the most. "

I thank you.

"Je vous remercie. "

Issued by: Department of Foreign Affairs photo

The 10th anniversary of Freedom in South Africa

Ms BS Mabandla, MP Minister for Justice and Constitutional Development
Address at the S.A. - France International Conference

The Honourable Mr Laurin, Chairman of the French Committee for South Africa Justice Albie Sachs, Advocate Denzel Potgieter, Ms Cheryl Carolus, Mr Gavin Pieterse, Ms Khanyi Dhlomo. Members of the Diplomatic Corps Distinguished Guests Fellow South Africans Ladies and Gentlemen

"My fellow compatriots and dear friends of South Africa;

Ladies and Gentlemen

My delegation and I wish to thank you for the warm welcome that we have received. I also wish to thank the French Foreign Ministry and the South Africa/French Committee for hosting this conference in celebration of South Africa's 10 years of freedom, democracy, peace and justice.

We are here today, to celebrate amongst friends and comrades, a decade of freedom and democracy. We are here to honour the spirit of human solidarity that nourished hope in the collective dream that victory in humanity's united struggle against apartheid, that crime against humanity was certain

Throughout the world people have come together, as we are doing today, to celebrate this 10th Anniversary of Freedom. They have done so because the struggle against apartheid was a united struggle of the peoples of the world against racism and racial domination. We do so because the victory against apartheid was as much your victory as it was ours. "

It gives me immense pleasure and it is indeed an honour for me to join you here today at this conference to celebrate the 10th anniversary of freedom in South Africa. Thank you for inviting me.

In 1994, South Africa emerged from a murky past that had seen the human rights of the majority of our country's citizens not only denied but also systematically violated. A decade later the South African people voted over-whelmingly for the African National Congress – the party that had campaigned vigorously for their dignity, humanity and freedom.

Now as we celebrate a decade of freedom, we take pride in the wealth of human rights achievements in our wake and now look forward to another decade filled with new and interesting socio-economic challenges.

"The brighter day is rising upon Africa. Already I seem to see her chains dissolved, her desert plains red with harvest, her Abyssinia and her Zululand the seats of science and religion, reflecting the glory of the rising sun from the spires of their churches and universities. Her Congo and her Gambia whitened with commerce, her crowded cities sending forth the hum of business, and all her sons employed in advancing the victories of peace-greater and more abiding than the spoils of war. Yes, the regeneration of Africa belongs to this new and powerful period, "

Pixley ka Seme , hero and founder of the African National Congress, observed in 1906.

As we celebrate this momentous milestone of our young democracy in South Africa, It is to the vision of the heroes of the struggle for a free, democratic and thriving South Africa and their efforts in the struggle against injustice and discrimination, that we turn our thoughts. Their efforts still serve as a beacon of inspiration to us as we strive to make their vision of a just, humane and caring society real in the every day lives of all South Africans. It is to these fearless heroes that we owe a profound debt of gratitude for bringing about the rise of a brighter Africa and South Africa filled with hope for a better future for all. The achievement of our political freedom in 1994 is an event that was universally celebrated. The celebrations both in South Africa and all over the world were a clear indication of the universal nature of the struggle that was waged against an evil system. The struggle for human rights and justice was fought at many levels in and outside South Africa.

As a new Government we all soon realised that while the struggle for political freedom was perhaps one of the most epic chapters of our modern history, the struggle for social and economic freedom would prove to be one of the most challenging. But we are firmly committed to winning again. We are inspired by former president Nelson Mandela, who at his inauguration address in 1994, said:

"The time for the healing of the wounds has come. The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come. The time to build is upon us. We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination. "

We are countenanced by a resilient legacy of deprivation almost unparalleled in the rest of the world. We also recognise that Government on its own faced by a myriad of other challenges in our quest for a better life for all, cannot eradicate the legacy.

Our President has sounded a clarion call to all of us to knuckle down in order to make a positive impact on the lives of the people of South Africa. In his recent State-of-the-Nation address President Mbeki committed Government to this by setting clear deliverables and deadlines. The President committed Government to ensuring, among others, that within the next five years all households will have access to running water and that by December 10 million South Africans will have access to portable water and provide 300.000 households with basic sanitation. Government will also intensify the housing programme.

The foundation in intervening decisively in the socio-economic areas has been firmly laid in the last ten years of democracy. The challenge is to consolidate these achievements and at the same time reach an increasing number of people in rural and peri-urban areas of our country.

Government has, since 1994, consciously set about reversing this awful legacy by putting into place structures and policy frameworks that redress past inequities and by diverting increasing proportions of the National Budget to the needs of the poor and the vulnerable.

In his State-of-the-Nation address in February 2002, President Thabo Mbeki noted that the Government had, as yet, failed to achieve the necessary progress on the human rights front, especially as it relates to poverty alleviation.

As we approach the second decade of our democracy and a new phase for our Government, we intend to focus on delivery to the masses of our people in communities that lack appropriate educational and health facilities, justice infrastructure and other basic amenities and services. The best way for this process to be accelerated and enhanced is for civil society to become actively involved in the delivery initiative.

We recognise the absolute interdependency of human rights and sustainable development. Indeed, our Constitution is premised on the fundamental belief that human rights and sustainable development are indivisible.

The Constitution provides for synergistic approach to the establishment of a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights. Social justice, however, can only be attained through the delivery of basic social and economic rights.

The United Nations singles out human poverty as the major obstacle to attaining and realising individual and group human rights. And today it is indeed human poverty that so often lies at the heart of our concerns around crime and justice in South Africa. Poverty and social injustice create a comfortable bed for all kinds of violence.

Different programmes intended to address poverty are taking effect and showing improvements in the lives of people. However, the persistence of poverty, arising largely from unemployment and the Apartheid legacy, and the difficulties in health demonstrate the magnitude of the challenge. Whilst service delivery and social grants are reaching an ever - increasing proportion of society, poor people and the social fabric that ensures their survival continue to be vulnerable.

At least two major Government programmes address the issue of poverty in the form of income grants and the public works programmes. Up until 1994, social grants were still being allocated on a racial basis. Since then, Government has equalised the Old-Age Pensions, and spread the reach of the Child Support Grant (CGS) among all eligible children. There are at least seven types of grants currently administered by the Department of Social Development and these are targeted at pensioners, poor families with children, war veterans, foster care and grants in aid for families taking care of children and people in need. The expenditure on these social grants has increased by 3.5 times between 1994 and 2003 from R10 billion to R34.8 billion. The number of beneficiaries has increased from 2.6 million to 6.8 million.

We also regard the provision of clean water as a major tool in the efforts to improve the lives of all the people of our country. The proportion of households having access to clean water has increased from 60% in 1996 to 85% in 2001. This translates into around 9 million citizens or about 3.7 million additional households gaining access to water between 1995 and 2003.

With regard to housing, which is a priority of our Government, between 1994 and 2003, 1 985 545 subsidies were approved for an expenditure of R24.22 billion. More over, 481 373 houses that were built in the Apartheid era were transferred to occupants through the discount benefit scheme. Whilst the costs to Government was approximately R3.6 billion, the replacement cost of these houses (that is, the value to occupants) is approximately R24 billion. Thus, about R48 billion of housing assets have been transferred to citizens since 1994.

With respect to improving gender equality in housing ownership, 49% of all subsidies approved were granted to women. The outcomes of providing subsidised housing indicate that a total of over 6 million citizens received housing between 1994 and 2003.

Dear friends, we need to remember that in 1994, we set ourselves the goal of a non-racial and non sexist society. We have come a long way in promoting women's human rights. Notwithstanding the fact that we have put in place the building blocks for this society, we are still faced by immense challenges.

Thank you

Extract of address delivered by Denzil Potgieter

Paris, 18 juin 2004

"It was, however, also realised that this objective can only be achieved if the conflicts of the past are put behind our backs and used as a mean of motivating the future generations never to regress into such a destructive situation. A better future is secured by confronting and unravelling the past. True healing can only occur once all the causes of the conflict are fully disclosed and indentified. "

"To this end the political negociators agreed on a mechanism, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission ("TRC"), to investigate and establish as full a picture as possible of the nature and causes of the conflict and to report on its findings and make recommandations to avoid a repetition of that situation. "

"TRC was public, accessible, transparent and open. One component was the granting of amnesty to prepetrators of politically motivated offences who make a full disclosure of all relevant facts. This assisted in obtaining a fuller picture of the conflict. Some information about human rights violations was only within the knowledge of individuals or small groups of perpetrators, who would not have been prepared to make voluntary disclosure without some incentive such as indemnity against prosecution or civil claims. "

"This led to a process of often painful confrontation with the realities of the evil perpetrated in the course of the past political conflict. It did, howhever, lead to a common and clerear understanding of that conflict and the factors that motivated some of the actions taken by the conflicting parties. It has served to eliminate any disputes or denials concerning the roles of the contenders. It has also placed the country in a position where the insights gained be applied to avoid a repetition of the nightmare. "

"The weight of opinion in South Africa favours the TRC as the most constructive and meaningful way in which we could have dealt with our past and so bolster the process of the nation building and the promotion of national unity and reconciliation. "

Témoignage de Jean Glavany

"J'ai eu la chance, je devrais dire le privilège de participer, en tant que membre de la mission parlementaire, aux premières élections au suffrage universel en Afrique du Sud en avril 1994; "

"Les membres de la mission ( dont faisait partie Monsieur Eric Raoult, ancien ministre) ont d'ailleurs tissé des liens particuliers entre eux, tous nés d'une émotion partagée. "

"Le travail de cette mission a été largement facilité par l'aide de notre Ambassadeur là-bas (Madame Joëlle Bourgois) à qui je veux rendre un hommage particulier car sa connaissance de l'Afrique du Sud et de sa communauté humaine et les relations peronnelles nombreuses, diverses, qu'elle avait su nouer dans un très grand esprit d'ouverture nous ont été très précieux. "

"Après une violence politique dans la semaine précédant le vote, soudain l'apaisement : le vote avait commencé (le 27 avril 1994). Le déroulement du vote a été un grand moment de calme et de sérénité, une véritable "trêve", révélatrice du caractère pacificateur de la démocratie.
Et, en même temps, facteur d'optimisme, l'immense espoir soulevé par le processus électoral et la conviction collective que ces élections sont " le premier pas" (the first step) dans la construction de la nouvelle Afrique du Sud, démocratique et multiraciale.

"Je me souviens de cette immense file d'attente de plusieurs kilomètres dans un bureau de vote de Kwamachu, township de la banlieue de Durban. Dans cette file, une vieille femme est assise sur un tabouret plus ou moins improvisé. Je m'approche d'elle : " ce n'est pas trop pénible?". Et elle me répond : " vous savez, Monsieur, ça fait 60 ans que j'attends ce moment; je peux bien attendre 5 ou 6 heures de plus..." Des larmes me montent aux yeux. "

"Je veux dire que ma participation à cet "évènement historique", la fin d'un régime odieux, la naissance d'une grande démocratie, reste pour moi comme le moment le plus "éblouissant" de ma modeste vie politique. "

Témoignage de Monsieur François Périgot

François Périgot, président du Medef international

"Je tiens également à souligner la solidarité qui est celle des entreprises françaises à l'égard des problèmes que connaît l'afrique du Sud, notre partenaire, et dont certains sont relevés dans le "troisième rapport sur le développement humaine" du programme des Nations-Unies pour le développement. Cette solidarité s'exprime par une coopération de la communauté d'affaires française avec l'Afrique du Sud ou par l'intermédiaire de ses représentants de l'Organisation Internationales des Employeurs dont l'Afrique du Sud est un membre influent. Elle a ainsi pleinement soutenu la démarche de M.Boki Botha, Vice-Président de l'OIE en charge de l'Afrique, et participe à Johannesburg à des travaux visant à relever le défi du développement durable dans le cadre d'intiatives contre la pauvreté et le sida. "

"Avant de terminer, je voudrais me premettre une observation que je fais en ma qualité de membre de la commission mondiale sur les aspects sociaux de la globalisations de l'économie. Une des conclusions de cette étude a été de constater l'importance de la pratique des valeurs de la démocratie dans la réusssite du modèle d'économie de liberté que le monde s'est choisi. A cet égard, je constate que l'Afrique du Sud, malgré les problèmes qu'elle a eus à surmonter, présente un caractère d'exemplarité dont beaucoup devraient s'inspirer. "

Témoignage de Monsieur Jean-Michel Severino

Jean-Michel Severino, directeur général de l'Agence Française pour le Développement

"Le groupe AFD appartient au dispositif de l'aide française en Afrique du Sud. Il est représenté par l'AFD et PROPARCO, sa filiale consacrée au secteur privé. L'AFD héberge également le Fonds Français pour l'envvironnement mondial (FFEM). Le opérations de l'AFD en Afrique du Sud ont débuté, à la demande du Gouvernement français, il y a exactement 10 ans en 1994, année de transition démocratique mettant fin au régime de l'apartheid. D'emblée, le mandat confié à l'AFD s'est axé sur le rattrapage social en faveur des populations historiquement désavantagées (PHD). Les attentes sociales et économiques de ces populations étaient en effet très fortes et le nouveau Gouvernement sud-africain avait mis leur satisfaction au coeur de ses priorités. Pour faire face aux formidables défis de la nouvelle Afrique du Sud, nous avons donc ciblé notre action sur la satisfaction des services essentiels tels que l'eau, l'électricité, les voiries, l'éducation et la santé. "

"Par ailleurs, nul ne peut ignorer le rôle moteur sous régional et continental que joue l'Afrique du Sud. La référence économique et politique qu'elle constitue en font un des symboles et des promoteurs les plus actifs du Nouveau Partenariat pour le Développement de l'Afrique, le NEPAD, dont la France reste un avocat inconditionnel. L'intégration économique du continent africain est en effet nécessaire au renforcement de la croissance et du développement, dont le poursuite des objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement. "